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For years banks were robbed by groups of skilled people with guns, which took cash in bags. With the popularity of electronic payments in the last 50 years came more sophisticated attacks on banks, credit cards, which were frequently traceable to the attackers and resulted in little damage to the private customers. Today a robber can steal millions directly from the person’s wallet and get away with it without stepping out of his bedroom. Bitcoin hardware wallet It is probably happening right now somewhere in the Bitcoin world.

For the past five years Bitcoin sparked a revolution in the finance sector and created a new ecosystem for currency exchange without borders and with anonymity. Its rise from enthusiasts’ trial to the worldwide fame has been meteoric and the potential to disrupt existing reality is just being tapped into. 
Today there are almost 14 million BTC in circulation, which amount to 4 billion dollars. Merchants all over the world accept Bitcoin in exchange for goods and services.

As a digital currency, Bitcoin is based on the unique personal secret private key and derives its security from strong crypto algorithms, like SHA2 and ECDSA. While the algorithms are unbreakable in the reasonable amount of time, the human factor remains a problem. It is often enough to get access to bitcoin owners PCs and smartphones or to the servers of the traders to get the private keys to steal bitcoins and use it’s anonymity to disappear. The inability to reverse transaction serves as an advantage over regular money thefts.

Thus the thieves in the cyber world work hard to break through digital defenses and get access to the large amounts of money with no danger to themselves. And they frequently succeed (like in BTER 1.75 million dollar cold wallet attack just a month ago or 19000BTC stolen from BitStamp). The digital nature of Bitcoin means that there are many proven methods of attack from the cyber world, while the individuals or private firms do not have the resources to effectively counter these attacks. Moreover, the attacker could come from inside the organization and copy the keys to the money directly from the servers. It is almost impossible to guard against this kind of attack.

The security in Bitcoin world is the main issue in the way to gain trust of a crowd in everyday use. It should be transparent in everyday life and unbreakable to any hacker. Today we have to choose between ease-of-use and security, and most will go for ease-of-use, just as any normal payment method (like a credit card). Bitcoin ecosystem needs much better security to preserve its momentum and gain wide adoption.



An exceptional newly refurbished 4 bedroom property on this delightful road just off Ecclesall road bang in the heart of the student village!

An exceptional newly refurbished 4 double bedroom property on this delightful road just off Ecclesall road bang in the heart of the student village. Student Accommodation Sheffield This fantastic large 4 bedroom property comprises of large dining/fully fitted kitchen with all new appliances. Separate large lounge fully furnished with modern Ikea furnishings. 2 x newly fitted shower rooms and 2 x newly fitted wc and 4 great sized bedrooms all with locks on doors, digital aerial points and modern Ikea furniture. Contemporary decoration throughout and modern light fittings.

Student Accommodation Sheffield  This property is a truly exceptional 4 bedroom property in a prime location. Located in the heart of Ecclesall Road and student community, 2 minutes walk from Collegiate Campus, Tesco and other local amenities, within walking distance into the city centre and with good transport links to and from the Sheffield Midland train station,

Sheffield Interchange (Main Bus Station) Sheffield Hallam University City Campus and Sheffield University. A great location for the bars and nightlife, this property is ideal for living close to friends and other groups of students.



A Newly refurbished 5 double bedroom house with new kitchen, new carpets, Ikea Furniture, separate shower and wc, new central heating system and with a lovely lounge area plus a great pebbled large back yard for those lovely sunny days. Sheffield Student Accommodation The house is tastefully decorated and fully furnished with Ikea furnishings throughout. All bedrooms have digital aerial points, locks on all bedroom doors and modern light fittings.

Just 10 minutes walk from Collegiate campus and minutes from the nearest bus stop with good transport links to and from the Sheffield Midland train station, Sheffield Interchange (Main Bus Station) Sheffield Hallam City Campus and Sheffield University. This property is also next door to 17 Guest road and both properties may be rented together if two groups of friends are wishing to live close to each other.



סטודיו ליאורית הינו סטודיו מקצועי לצילום שמתמחה בצילומי בת-מצווה.

כדרך חיים, אני מאמינה בתמורה הוגנת לתשלום המשולם ולכן אני מקפידה לגבות מחיר סביר לסשן צילומי סטודיו.בוק בת מצווה 

חבילות צילומי בת-מצווה הינן עשירות בתוכן רב ותוכלו לבחור מהרשימה למטה את זמן הצילום, כמות הרקעים וסוגיהם, אביזרים וסך והתמונות הערוכות בפוטושופ.

אני מאוד מעריכה את איכות התמונות בסטודיו וגם מאוד אוהבת את הגיוון והטבעיות שיש לתמונות חוץ. בצילום איכותי בסטודיו ניתן להגיע לתוצאה מדהימה תוך נוחות מירבית ובצילומי חוץ ניתן להגיע למראה טבעי, מגוון ומהמם.

בואו להתרשם מהחבילות האטרקטיביות שמשלבות צילומי סטודיו וצילומי חוץ.

בחבילות הצילום ניתן גם לשלב מאפרת מקצועית ואלבומים דיגיטאליים או קנבס.

סטודיו ליאורית מציע סטודיו מרווח של 80 מ"ר, עםחניה צמודה, תא הלבשה, מטבחון, שירותים, פינת ישיבה ואביזור הכי מקצועי שיש. במהלך השנים רכשתי המון אביזרים איכותיים שיגרמו לתמונות שלכם להיראות אישיות ומיוחדות. אני לא מתפשרת על איכות ולכן כל הציוד אצלי הינו הכי איכותי שקיים בשוק הצילום.

אני מאמינה שמי שמגיע לסטודיו צריך לקבל תמונות מדהימות וחוויה אישית מהנה - וזו הבטחה!

בוק בת מצווה בסטודיו ליאורית הינה חוויה מרגשת ומדהימה שלא מתפשרת על איכות ושירותיות.

אשמח לשמוע ממכם,




In typical HW wallet implementation the crypto microcontroller, that handles private key and signing is connected directly to the external communication interface.bitcoin hardware wallet

Thus it is prone to attacks from it’s input-output pins and dedicated interfaces (uart, usb, etc.).

If a remote attacker was able to change the code on the microcontroller flash, only a single successful attack is needed.

Afterwards the infected microcontroller can leak private keys, attack any device it is connected to (see recent usb vulnerability) and more without the user knowing it.

There are many companies specializing in reverse engineering and backdoor access to microcontrollers.

Some wallets use smartcard devices with proprietary hardware and software to gain protection by obscurity.

The problem with this approach is that there could be undocumented flaws in the hardware and/or software of the device, ready for exploit by a determined party.

These devices were designed by humans and can not be tested by a community for security.

HW firewall on FPGA enables complete decoupling between the communication messages wallet-external application and the wallet crypto code.

There is no software or ability to change the FPGA code when running. So the code for the internal MCU can be upgraded and multiple external non-secure interfaces can be used without breaching the security.

FPGA chip sits in-between and makes sure only “legal” data goes through. Any suspicious data is stopped before it reaches the crypto microcontroller.

Moreover, microcontroller vulnerabilities are rendered unusable without the ability to inject malicious data on the microcontroller pins.

Q2: How can the end user trust the bitstream we provide with the FPGA?

Bitstream is stored in the dedicated flash memory, that is connected only to the crypto microcontroller and special configuration pins on FPGA.

Bitstream is loaded automatically from the flash memory to the FPGA on power-on.

Our consumer product has a physical protection, so that an attempt to connect directly to the on-board chips will result in physical damage to the product.

Our development kit enables reprogramming FPGA by a JTAG interface.

Additionally, FPGA flash can be reprogrammed by the crypto MCU safely from SD card.

The user can always compile firewall open source code on a trusted PC and load it by the SD card.

We will provide detailed how-to guide for all options, so that the user will not have to trust us.

Q3: How can the user trust the bitstream in our product without compiling the source code?

User can request from the crypto microcontroller to read the bitstream from the configuration flash, calculate hash and display it on the embedded screen.

User can write down the hash and compare it to the previous results or to the published value on our site.

We will publish the settings for the FPGA code generator tool in order to enable advanced users to recompile the bitstream and check our hash.

Q4: How can I trust FPGA code generator tool to create exact implementation of the high-level code?

FPGA code is a description of the actual silicon connections of the application circuit with final number of circuit states and final number of inputs and outputs. These connections are constant and defined by the bitstream. The developer can verify circuit behaviour by injecting all possible inputs combinations and recording all outputs. Our source code is a human readable reference for the circuit behaviour. 



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